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This paper will be used to evaluate the research process. The chosen article is Pregnancy Risk among Black, White, and Hispanic Teen Girls in the New York City Public Schools. The research process is inclusive of several initial parts which are the selection of a problem, formulation of a hypothesis, a description of the subject, and the review of any literature as well as to construct a design plan, analyze data and write a conclusion. The paper will be used to discuss the literature and how it is used in the research. What are the considerations for data collection and what is the data telling us in terms of statistical analysis?
In the article Pregnancy Risk among Black, White, and Hispanic Teen Girls in New York City Schools, the data was collected form the use of the (YRBS) New York City Youth Risk Behavior surveys. The survey was implemented by the (DOHMH) New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and the (DOE) Department of Education. The surveys have been conducted since 1997 on a biennial basis. The data that is used was collected from surveys that were taken in 2005 and 2007. A total of 17,220 students from 87 public high schools were surveyed. Since this information was collected from individuals that were not of legal age, the researchers were extra careful to protect the confidentially of the students.
This was done by having the students to complete a survey that requires that no personal information is given. The survey consists of 99 questions and it is self-administered. The data that has been collected has concluded that there is definitely a difference in the sexual activity of girls between the ages of 15 and 19 years old that attended public schools in the New York City area. The differences include more than just age, it also include race, ethnicity, schools, neighborhoods and economic backgrounds as well. Based on the findings of the surveys there is an unmistakable difference in the statistics for each group that participated. Therefore there is a definitely a correlation between the findings and the figures that were used. The numerical data that was retrieved from the survey proves that the data is significant and provides enough evidence to support the significance of the study. In the article the results concluded that (32.6%) of high school girls reported that they were sexually active in the 3 months prior to the survey. Out of all of the girls that participated in the survey, black students were more likely to be sexually active followed by Hispanics the whites.
There were variations in the sexual activity which increased or decreased with age, race and ethnicity. The results also assessed the differences in each group access to and the use of contraceptive. The conclusion states that the use of hormonal contraceptive such as the pill was low among all racial and ethnic groups. Differences also occurred within the different neighborhoods. The conclusion noted that Hispanic girls in New York City were less likely when compared to white to use any type of contraceptive methods which put them at a greater risk of becoming pregnant. It also state that if there is any hope of preventing teen pregnancies, the proper information must be made available to educate these girls about long acting methods of contraception. Upon careful review of the conclusion it is evident that the conclusion does answer the research question as it is stated in the definition of the problem.
The conclusion is appropriate because it re states the obvious facts from the date that had been collected from the surveys. It also summarizes the finding and breaks down the data so that suggestions can be made as a way to help to prevent teen age pregnancy within the area that was deemed to be high risk. Although the article has significant statistics and data, it is my opinion that there is not enough information to make a decision on the effectiveness of the study. There were several limitation within the study that allows one to question the effectiveness of the study overall. First, the YRBS only included limited questions pertaining to sexual activity and contraception which means it is possible that there are unmeasured differences in the frequency of sexual activity and the consistency in the use of
Contraceptives which could make the collected data on each group incorrect. There are also limitations related to data that is collected by neighborhood schools. In some cases students choose to attend magnet or other specialized schools that are located outside of their home school. Another limitation is that the finding for the study was generalized to teens that attended New York City public schools. Therefore, many students that lived in the city but attended private schools or were in a special education program were not surveyed. The article lacked significant information on any other studies that the data could be compared to as a way to test for accuracy of the information.
The literature review for the article was used to analyze the variation in the components that plays a major role in assessing the pregnancy risk among students attending New York City public high schools. The discussion portion of this article breaks down all of the difference and compares all of the similarities that exist between black, whites, and Hispanics which contribute to the high pregnancy rate within each group. The discussion also touches on the evidence that schools and neighborhoods can be a major influence in the risk of pregnancy for teen aged girls. Racial and ethnic differences have had an effect on the motivation and the expectation of girls to become sexually active in the early teen years. Fortunately the diverse nature of the study will help to provide the information needed to initiate programs that will give girls the knowledge to delay pregnancy until later in life.